Diabetes Mellitus is a disease characterized by high blood glucose levels that result from the failure of the pancreas to produce and use insulin which affects the human immune system and even cause the failure of vital organs if not controlled and managed. With almost 72 million patients suffering from type 2 diabetes, India is known as the diabetes capital of the world. 49 percent of the world’s total population of diabetics lives in India and it is the most prevalent disease in the country.
Diabetes can be genetic or may develop with the malfunctioning of the pancreas. Common types of diabetes are Pre-diabetes, which is the pre-stage of type 2 diabetes, Type 1 Diabetes, which is more prevalent in children and young adults, and in type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin, Type 2 Diabetes, this is also called hyperglycemia or insulin resistance, and it is the most common form of diabetes. The fourth one is Gestational Diabetes which many women develop around the 24th week of pregnancy.
While throwing light on the symptoms and diagnostic tests of diabetes, Dr. Ravi Gaur, Chief Operating Officer and Lab Director of Oncquest Laboratories, said, “Some of the common symptoms related to diabetes are increased hunger and thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision and frequent infections or slow healing of sores. For doctors, diagnosing type 1 diabetes on the basis of symptoms is easier, but to be certain that a person has Type 2 diabetes or not, they recommend some tests such as Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test, Random blood sugar test, Fasting blood sugar test, and Oral glucose tolerance test.”
“One can prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes through a healthy lifestyle which comprises balanced diet with a good intake of fibre, increase in the level of physical activities, maintaining weight, meditation, and sound sleep. After getting positive diagnostic reports, the patient should strictly follow the prescription and suggestions of a qualified and experienced endocrinologist.” Dr. Gaur further commented.
If one has diabetes in the family history, 45 years old or more, overweight, or a woman who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy should not ignore or delay routine checkups to prevent and manage diabetes.