Waste products resulting from human life have always been a serious problem. Environmental contamination is increasing day by day because of increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. Hence bioremediation is the most effective tool to manage the polluted environment and recover contaminated soil. It is the technology that uses microorganisms’ (including aerobes, anaerobes, fungi, algae and engineered microorganisms) metabolism to remove pollutants. It uses relatively low-cost, human beneficial techniques, which generally have a high public acceptance and can often be carried out on site. The goal of bioremediation is to bio-transform toxic materials into nontoxic ones so that they may enter natural biogeochemical cycles more quickly. Bioremediation can be applied on site (in situ) or off site (ex situ), mediated by mixed microbial consortia or pure microbial strains. This technology includes biostimulation (stimulating viable native microbial population), bio augmentation (artificial introduction of viable population), bioaccumulation (live cells), bio sorption (dead microbial biomass), and rhizoremediation (plant and microbe interaction). A continuous search for the new engibeered biological microorganisms is required to regulate increasing pollution and environmental problems faced by man residing in an area.
By: Yamini Rusiya