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How Bluetooth Works?

We all use Bluetooth almost every day, but do you know how it works? On the surface, it might seem that Bluetooth is just another communication platform built using the standard radio waves. However, if we delve deeper, we can see that there’s a lot more to it. For better understanding, let’s see in detail how Bluetooth works.

How Bluetooth operates?

Bluetooth transmits data using low-power radio waves. The frequency of radio waves is in the range of 2.400 GHz to 2.4835 GHz, which has been specifically allocated as per international agreement. It is meant to be used for industrial, scientific and medical devices (ISM). Not many know that Bluetooth has an effective range of around one kilometer. However, Bluetooth is not used to its maximum capability, as it would start interfering with other Bluetooth enabled devices. By reducing power, weak signals are produced, which in turn reduces the range. That’s why most home-based Bluetooth devices have a range of around 10 meters.

To avoid interfering with other devices in a room, Bluetooth utilizes spread-spectrum frequency hopping. This ensures that all Bluetooth devices in the room are using a different frequency at any given point of time. Bluetooth devices communicate with each other by creating a Piconet, which is essentially an ad hoc network that connects two or more devices using Bluetooth technology protocols.

How a Bluetooth connection is made?

Bluetooth connections are made automatically based on agreements defined at the protocol level. Users just need to provide their consent when a pairing request is received. Agreements cover various aspects such as how many bits will be sent, how many bits at a given time, and how many devices will be part of the conversation. The primary purpose of agreements is to ensure that connections are made between intended devices and the received data is exactly the same as sent data.

Is Bluetooth safe?

Wireless networks are susceptible to security risks, as advanced devices have capabilities to glean data from radio waves. Bluetooth shares similar concerns, but the good thing is that it is a lot safer as compared to the standard Wi-Fi. With its ability to establish connections automatically and use ‘trusted devices’ as a protocol for data transfer, Bluetooth is harder to crack. Every connection request requires the user’s authorization, which significantly reduces security risks.

Bluetooth is preferred because it is inexpensive and hassle-free. It can pass through walls and connect with multiple devices, which make it superior to other technologies such as Infrared (IR). Bluetooth is also more secure, which is another key reason for its popularity.

About Satya Singh

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