The properties including growth, differentiation and cellular organization in an open-end environment outside our body can be approached by the method of ex vivo tissue engineering. These templates can be directly used to assess the tissue model for proper pharmacokinetic property and drug screening assays as mimicking implants or extracorporeal devices. Electrospun fibers are a leading class of polymeric materials which have excelled in the field of ex vivo tissue engineering due to their high mechanical properties supplemented by biocompatibility.
The targeting aspect which is needed for a material to behave as a tissue model is to induce to same 3D porous and the architectural structure under in vivo system. Especially materials with nanoporosity or microporosity can reproduce the same features and provides a pivotal entry to the system of anti-cancer treatment enabling the multicellular aggregation of the metastatic cells. These behaviors primarily affect the adhesion and the growth of the molecules which aids in the penetration of these rugs. Since stiffness also influences the stability of the scaffold formed, microfibers have turned out to be the potent agent for advanced tissue culture.
Electrospun collagen type 1 from calf skin was researched to fabricate into a successful scaffold which provided a clustered growth of the C4-2B prostate cancer cells representing exactly as the C4-2B tissue model. These collagen models developed from the electrospun fibers resulted to be more resistant than the ordinary 2D matrix generated, proving that elasticity is an important factor for the duplication of the biological properties of the C4-2B cells. Advanced research methods also synthesized a 3D model of the Ewin Sarcoma Tumours which provided a breakthrough in the testing and probation of the bone malignancies. The reveals indicate that these matrices were resistant to the cytotoxic drug (doxorubicin) twice as its counterpart was. Moreover, the expression of the growth factors and the differentiation were prominent in this scaffold.
The 3D cancer models lead towards a more personalized treatment process for carcinomas by finding the patient related specific therapeutic drugs. Once the synthetic vascular grafts which were ardours work for scientists to develop can now be easily fabricated by tubular nanofibers scaffold based on collagen-coated with PLLA-co-PCL. As a prototype testing, these 3D matrices were implanted in the endothelial cells of the human coronary demonstrating the efficacy of nanofibers in tissue engineering.
Recently Immich et al had conducted his research on the tympanic membrane of the Sprague Dawley rats grafting ex vivo blended culture cells of keratinocytes and fibroblasts synthesized from electrospun nanofibers of PLLA/PLGA scaffolds which are absorbable biomaterials. The endoscopy showed no negative impacts on the scaffold system.
The world of Polymer has explored field such as tissue engineering making the perfect bridge between biology and technologies. We hope for many more such scientific developments to get innovated in near future.
By: Sayan Basak