Every year close to 800 000 people take their own life and there are many more people who attempt suicide. Every suicide is a tragedy that affects families, communities and entire countries and has long-lasting effects on the people left behind. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan and was the second leading cause of death among 15–29-year-olds globally in 2016.
WHO is releasing today Preventing suicide: a community engagement toolkit, a step-by-step guide for communities to engage in suicide prevention activities. It was developed together with the Mental Health Commission of Canada. It is available here :
WHO fact sheet on suicide prevention: EnglishFrench Spanish Arabic Chinese Russian
Latest WHO data on suicidehttp://apps.who.int/gho/data/
Suicide does not just occur in high-income countries, but is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world. In fact, over 79% of global suicides occurred in low- and middle-income countries in 2016. Suicide is a serious public health problem; however, suicides are preventable with timely, evidence-based and often low-cost interventions.
Who is at risk?
While the link between suicide and mental disorders (in particular, depression and alcohol use disorders) is well established in high-income countries, many suicides happen impulsively in moments of crisis with a breakdown in the ability to deal with life stresses, such as financial problems, relationship break-up or chronic pain and illness.
Methods of suicide
It is estimated that around 20% of global suicides are due to pesticide self-poisoning, most of which occur in rural agricultural areas in low- and middle-income countries. Other common methods of suicide are hanging and firearms.
Knowledge of the most commonly used suicide methods is important to devise prevention strategies which have shown to be effective, such as restriction of access to means of suicide.
Prevention and control
Suicides are preventable. There are a number of measures that can be taken at population, sub-population and individual levels to prevent suicide and suicide attempts. These include:
- reducing access to the means of suicide (e.g. pesticides, firearms, certain medications);
- introducing alcohol policies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol;
- early identification, treatment and care of people with mental and substance use disorders, chronic pain and acute emotional distress;
- training of non-specialized health workers in the assessment and management of suicidal behaviour;
- follow-up care for people who attempted suicide and provision of community support.
- reporting by media in a responsible way
Suicide is a complex issue and therefore suicide prevention efforts require coordination and collaboration among multiple sectors of society, including the health sector and other sectors such as education, labour, agriculture, business, justice, law, defense, politics, and the media. These efforts must be comprehensive and integrated as no single approach alone can make an impact on an issue as complex as suicide.
Stigma and taboo
Stigma, particularly surrounding mental disorders and suicide, means many people thinking of taking their own life or who have attempted suicide are not seeking help and are therefore not getting the help they need. The prevention of suicide has not been adequately addressed due to a lack of awareness of suicide as a major public health problem and the taboo in many societies to openly discuss it. To date, only a few countries have included suicide prevention among their health priorities and only 38 countries report having a national suicide prevention strategy.
Raising community awareness and breaking down the taboo is important for countries to make progress in preventing suicide.
IARC CANCER REPORT
Press conference: Wednesday, 12 September at 2.00 p.m. Salle de presse 1. Under embargo for 12 September at the end of the press conference(3 pm)
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) asked me to announce the following press conference:
Launch of the latest global cancer data:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) today launches its latest estimates on the global burden of cancer. Available on IARC’s online database, Globocan 2018 is based on data from cancer registries in 185 countries and provides estimates of incidence and mortality for 36 cancers.
The data highlights the great diversity of cancer and variations in the magnitude and profile of the disease between and within world regions.
• Dr. Christopher Wild, Director of IARC
• Dr. Freddie Bray, Head of Section of Cancer Surveillance, IARC
• Dr. Jacques Ferlay, Scientist, Section of Cancer Surveillance, IARC